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COP26闭幕:最后一刻达成妥协

2021-11-15 14:24:30 mana 92

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在会期延长一天之后,第26届联合国气候变化大会早些时候在英国格拉斯哥落下帷幕近200个与会国家最终达成一份成果文件。联合国秘书长古特雷斯认为,该文件反映了当今世界的利益、矛盾和政治意愿。他在会议结束时发布的视频声明中说:“这是重要的一步,但还不够。我们必须加快气候行动,以实现将全球气温上升限制在1.5摄氏度的目标。” 


古特雷斯补充说,现在是时候进入“紧急模式”,结束化石燃料补贴,逐步淘汰煤炭,为碳定价,保护弱势社区,并兑现1000亿美元的气候融资承诺。他说:“我们在这次会议上没有实现这些目标。但我们为今后取得进展奠定了一些基础。”  


古特雷斯还向年轻人、土著社区、妇女领袖以及所有领导气候行动的人表达了他的期望。“前进的道路并不总是一帆风顺……但我们最终能够抵达目的地。我们在进行人生最重要的一场战斗,这场战斗必须取得胜利。我们将永不放弃,绝不退缩,继续向前。” 

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秘书长致辞如下(英文全文):


Let me begin by thanking our hosts — the UK government and the people of Glasgow — for their tremendous hospitality.  


I salute Alok Sharma and his team.  This was an extremely challenging conference. They have shown remarkable expertise in reaching consensus among parties.  


I am grateful to Patricia Espinosa and all my colleagues of the United Nations Climate Change team. 


And I express my gratitude to all delegates — and all those on the outside who have put pressure on this COP to deliver. 


The approved texts are a compromise. They reflect the interests, the conditions, the contradictions and the state of political will in the world today.   


They take important steps, but unfortunately the collective political will was not enough to overcome some deep contradictions. 


As I said at the opening, we must accelerate action to keep the 1.5 degree goal alive. 


Our fragile planet is hanging by a thread.   


We are still knocking on the door of climate catastrophe.   


It is time to go into emergency mode — or our chance of reaching net zero will itself be zero. 


I reaffirm my conviction that we must end fossil fuels subsidies.  


Phase out coal.   


Put a price on carbon.  


Build resilience of vulnerable communities against the here and now impacts of climate change.   


And make good on the $100 billion climate finance commitment to support developing countries.  


We did not achieve these goals at this conference. But we have some building blocks for progress.  


Commitments to end deforestation. To drastically reduce methane emissions. To mobilize private finance around net zero.   


And the texts today reaffirm resolve towards the 1.5 degree goal. Boost climate finance for adaptation. Recognize the need to strengthen support for vulnerable countries suffering from irreparable climate damage.   


And for the first time they encourage International Financial Institutions to consider climate vulnerabilities in concessional financial and other forms of support, including Special Drawing Rights. 


And finally close the Paris rule book with agreement on carbon markets and transparency.   


These are welcome steps, but they are not enough.   


Science tells us that the absolute priority must be rapid, deep and sustained emissions reductions in this decade. 


Specifically — a 45% cut by 2030 compared to 2010 levels.   


But the present set of Nationally Determined Contributions -- even if fully implemented -- will still increase emissions this decade on a pathway that will clearly lead us to well above 2 degrees by the end of the century compared to pre-industrial levels. 


I welcome the agreement between US and China here in Glasgow that — like the text today — pledges to accelerate action to reduce emissions in the 2020s. 


To help lower emissions in many other emerging economies, we need to build coalitions of support including developed countries, financial institutions, those with the technical know-how. 


This is crucial to help each of those emerging countries speed the transition from coal and accelerate the greening of their economies.    


The partnership with South Africa announced a few days ago is a model for doing just that.  


I want to make a particular appeal for our future work in relation to adaptation and the issue of loss and damage. 


Adaptation isn’t a technocratic issue, it is life or death. 


I was once Prime Minister of my country. And I imagine myself today in the shoes of a leader from a vulnerable country.   


COVID-19 vaccines are scarce. My economy is sinking. Debt is mounting.  International resources for recovery are completely insufficient.   


Meanwhile, although we contributed least to the climate crisis, we suffer most.   


And when yet another hurricane devastates my country, the treasury is empty.   


Protecting countries from climate disaster is not charity.  It is solidarity and enlightened self-interest.   


We have another climate crisis today. A climate of mistrust is enveloping our globe.  Climate action can help rebuild trust and restore credibility.   


That means finally delivering on the $100 billion climate finance commitment to developing countries.  


No more IOUs. 


It means measuring progress, updating climate plans every year and raising ambition. I will convene a global stock-taking summit at the heads of state level in 2023.   


And it means – beyond the mechanisms already set out in the Paris Agreement –  establishing clear standards to measure and analyze net zero commitments from non-state actors.   


I will create a High-Level Expert Group with that objective. 


Finally, I want to close with a message of hope and resolve to young people, indigenous communities, women leaders, all those leading the climate action army. 


I know many of you are disappointed.   


Success or failure is not an act of nature. It’s in our hands.  


The path of progress is not always a straight line. Sometimes there are detours. Sometimes there are ditches. 


As the great Scottish writer Robert Louis Stevenson said: “Don’t judge each day by the harvest you reap, but by the seeds that you plant.”  


We have many more seeds to plant along the path.   


We won’t reach our destination in one day or one conference. 


But I know we can get there. 


We are in the fight of our lives.  


Never give up. Never retreat. Keep pushing forward.  


I will be with you all the way.  


COP 27 starts now.

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协议梗概

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这份名为《格拉斯哥气候公约》的成果文件呼吁197个国家在明年于埃及举行的第27届联合国气候变化大会上报告他们在实现更大气候目标方面的进展。 


大会取得的成果巩固了在这个十年全球致力于加速气候行动的共识。 


在谈判的最后一刻,中国和印度提出就淘汰煤炭的措辞进行修改。当天早些时候散发的草案文本的措辞为“逐步淘汰有增无减的煤碳发电和化石燃料低效补贴”。周六最后通过的文本措辞修改为“逐步减少”煤炭使用。

 

本届大会主席阿洛克·夏尔马在通报这一最新进展时情绪激动,几乎落泪。他为“进程以这种方式演变”表示道歉,并表示理解一些代表团会对更强有力的措辞没有被写入最终协议“深感失望”。 


这份成果文件还要求政府为更新减排计划确定更为紧迫的时间表。 


关于发达国家为支持发展中国家的气候行动提供资金这一棘手问题,案文强调需要“从所有来源调动气候资金,以达到实现《巴黎协定》目标所需的水平,包括大幅增加对发展中国家缔约方的支持,使总的数额每年超过1000亿美元”。 



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1.5度“脉搏微弱”


《联合国气候变化框架公约》执行秘书埃斯皮诺萨表示:“谈判从来都不容易……这是共识和多边主义的本质。”


她说,针对过去两周内宣布的每一个承诺,人们都期望实施计划和执行细则会随之而来。她表示,在采取气候适应行动方面取得了一些进展,并呼吁人们“享受所取得的成就,但也为未来做好准备。” 


与此同时,此次气候变化大会会议主席夏尔马指出,各代表团可以“可信地”说,它们已经将升温控制在1.5摄氏度的目标保持在可及范围内。 


“但它的脉搏跳动得很弱。我们只有信守承诺,它才能得以生存,前提是我们将承诺转化为快速行动,实现《格拉斯哥气候公约》中提出的到2030年及以后提高雄心的期望,缩小仍然存在的巨大差距。我们必须这样做。” 


他随后再次引用了巴巴多斯总理莫特利的话。莫特利在会议早些时候曾表示,对于巴巴多斯和其他小岛屿国家来说,“两摄氏度的升温意味着死刑。”对此,夏尔马要求代表们继续努力,让融资流动起来,促进适应行动。 


他最后强调,“我们现在必须确保我们接下来需要所采取的行动将使我们在《格拉斯哥气候公约》中做出的庄严承诺变为现实。” 




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结果“并不是最糟糕”


在大会最后一次进展总结全体会议上,许多国家哀叹商定的一揽子决定迈出的步伐还不够;一些人称之为“令人失望”。但总的来说,他们认识到,考虑到各国的分歧,在这个时候达成协议是平衡的。 


尼日利亚、帕劳、菲律宾、智利和土耳其等国家均表示,尽管存在不完善之处,但它们总体上支持该案文。 


马尔代夫首席谈判代表以一种苦乐参半的口吻表示,“这是一个渐进的步骤,但不符合所需的进展。对马尔代夫来说,承诺太过遥远。这项协议没有给我们带来希望。”  


美国气候特使约翰·克里表示,该文本“是一份强有力的声明”,并向代表们保证,美国将建设性地参与关于损失、损害和适应的对话,这是让各国达成一致的两个最棘手的问题。 


来自新西兰的首席谈判代表表示,“这份文本代表了‘不是最糟糕’的结果。”  

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中美合作

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中国和美国在此次格拉斯哥联合国气候变化大会期间共同发布《中美关于在21世纪20年代强化气候行动的格拉斯哥联合宣言》(以下简称《联合宣言》)。


中国气候变化事务特使解振华指出,此次《联合宣言》的发表再次表明,中、美合作是唯一正确的选择,中、美合作可以办成许多有利于两国和世界的大事。


在谈到《联合宣言》的签署过程时,解振华表示,“双方是有诚意的,是非常建设性的,而且也都展现了一些灵活性。我们要想合作,必须有机制,必须要务实,而不能够停留在口头上。”


解振华表示,中方愿意与美方继续按照两国元首通话的精神,加强气候变化领域的对话与合作,落实好4月上海联合声明和本份《联合宣言》,推动中、美气候变化对话合作走实走深,为改善双边关系作出贡献,为多边进程注入正能量。


他强调,中、美作为两个大国,承担了特殊的国际责任和义务,应该展现大格局、承担大担当,应当顺应世界潮流,挖掘更多合作潜力,为促进世界和平与发展作出历史性的贡献。


中方一直与各方保持着密切沟通和联系,推动大会取得成功。中国近年来采取的务实举措,为全球应对气候变化作出了贡献,受到国际社会广泛关注。



其他主要成就


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气候行动简要回顾


召开《联合国气候变化框架公约》第26次缔约方会议是几十年来联合国协助帮助避免迫在眉睫的气候紧急情况的努力中的最新和最重要的步骤之一。 



1992年,联合国在里约热内卢组织了一次名为“地球峰会”的重大活动,会上通过了《联合国气候变化框架公约》。


各国在该条约中同意“稳定大气中的温室气体浓度”,以防止人类活动对气候系统的危险干扰。如今,共有197个国家加入了该条约。 


自1994年该条约生效以来,联合国每年都召集世界上几乎所有国家举行全球气候峰会或“缔约方会议”(COP)


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监制:程浩


责任编辑:崔乐怡

实习编辑:施佳垠